In recent surveys, the religious “nones” – as in, “none of the above” – appear to lead in the faith marketplace. In fact, “none” could soon be the dominant label U.S. adults pick when asked to describe their religious identity.
But they may not be who you think they are. Today, “nones” include many more unbranded believers than atheists, and an increasingly diverse racial and ethnic mix.
And, researchers say, this is already making nones’ attitudes and opinions less predictably liberal on social issues.
All the subcategories of Protestants – white and black evangelicals, plus the mainline faithful – still add up to a plurality (48 percent), although each has “distinctive social and political beliefs, attitudes and opinions,” said Greg Smith, director of U.S. religion surveys for Pew Research Center.
“The nones are clearly growing as a share of the population. It’s a big, important, fundamental change in U.S. society, regardless of what’s causing it and whatever else is happening,” Smith said. “But does it necessarily mean that other religious groups are less healthy than they might have been? It may be that they are, but there are other forces that are at play.”
Those forces include immigration rates and religious switching. About half of Americans switch their religion, leave one or find one at least once.
Today’s young adults are starting out more unaffiliated than any prior generation of 20-year-olds. Even if some millennials do find a faith, said Robert Jones, head of Public Religion Research Institute, “they will still be the most unaffiliated generation in history.”
Jones identified another force in shifting religious demography: “There are fewer white evangelicals among millennials (ages 18 to 33) because younger Americans today are more racially and ethnically diverse.”
The Institute found that second- and third-generation Hispanics are less likely to be Catholic than their parents or grandparents. Some move to evangelical, charismatic and politically conservative Protestant groups, but equal numbers are becoming unaffiliated.
The Institute’s 2012 American Values Survey broke the nones into three groups.
Atheists and agnostics (36 percent) are “overwhelmingly white,” Jones said; only 12 percent are Hispanic or African-American. The second group, those who say they are “not religious” (39 percent), are 64 percent white, and the remainder are racial or ethnic minorities.
There has been a surge in the third group, the “unattached believers,” who believe in God but reject a religious brand (23 percent), Jones said. That group is also significantly more likely to include minorities: It’s 56 percent white, 12 percent Hispanic, 23 percent African-American and 7 percent other.
“These are people who, by many traditional measures of belief in God and the Bible, look like people who are affiliated. But in the survey, they say they are not attached to a formal religious tradition and do not even identify with a nondenominational Christian church,” Jones said.
These “unattached believers” likely contributed to a surprising finding in the recent Institute survey on attitudes toward lesbians and gays. While every religious group moved toward more acceptance of gay marriage in the past decade, 26 percent of the unaffiliated said “gay marriage goes against their religious beliefs,” up from 18 percent in 2003.
Put another way, atheists, agnostics and secularists did not shift toward religion or opposition to gay marriage, but that third group now contains more “unattached believers” who bring with them their more traditional notions of sexuality, and they’re now standing under the same umbrella.
No matter what you call them (“nones,” “unaffiliated” or “unattached” to “unbranded”) they may be unreachable for the church, said Ed Stetzer, president of Nashville, Tenn.-based LifeWay Research.
“Most people in the past identified as Christians even if they didn’t practice as Christians. Now that secularism is one of the biggest forces in our culture,” said Stetzer, “they don’t look to God, sacred texts or institutional religion as their prime frame of reference or authority for their values.”
That alarms Bishop Emery Lindsay, presiding bishop of the small black Protestant denomination Church of Christ (Holiness) U.S.A.
Lindsay said he sees more young African-Americans drawn away from church life than ever before.
Said Lindsay: “I meet people all the time who say ‘I am spiritual, I believe in God, but I’m not connected or committed anywhere.’ ”
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