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He managed to turn chains into a symbol of freedom

Somehow, the little country boy grew up to rattle chains.

Isaac Hayes made music, of course, and plenty of it – soulful and gritty ballads and that disco-heaving soundtrack “Shaft” – but there was nothing like those chains. They adorned his chest onstage like thick jewels. He wouldn't run from history.

Hayes was a black man born in the South in 1942. And that, of course, is a birth and time period that gives a black man some extra challenges: He has to pick up things along the way; he has to look beyond the cotton fields and the Memphis docks and all the hauling of furniture that so many of his high school friends had to do.

Hayes, who died Sunday at 65, rolled himself out as a musical personification of black manhood. If the '60s shook the nation up – musically and politically – the '70s represented a deeper digging in. There were more black fashion models on Madison Avenue. There were more black actors on television. Black was beautiful and cool and defiant.

Music was everywhere and seemingly everything – at least to the young minds trooping in and out of the record stores, watching “American Bandstand” and “Soul Train,” listening to black radio and those convertible Mustangs.

If the north – Detroit – had Motown, the South – Memphis – had Stax Records, where a whole bevy of songwriters and artists – Otis Redding, David Porter, Isaac Hayes – were cats in the summer heat making their music. They'd write on sketch pads; they'd wolf down fried fish sandwiches between sessions; they'd roll over to the Lorraine Motel to see who was in town; they'd chat about women and love and heartache. And they'd watch that poor child, Isaac, now a man, hone his own image.

Elvis had white satin.

Isaac had those chains.

His “Black Moses” album, released in 1971, got alarming stares from many folks – especially whites – but blacks considered it a revelation. It was a kind of iconic art: a muscular black man in flowing robe. The religious merged with the political, all coming alive against a backdrop of thumping music. “People were probably saying to themselves, ‘Here is Memphis, the buckle on the Bible Belt, and Isaac Hayes is coming out onstage dressed as black Moses,'” Jim Spake, a Memphis-based sax player who played with Hayes over the years, recalled Sunday. “If you notice, that album opened out (with flaps) kind of like a crucifix. That was seen as pretty heavy for those times. And that was the mystique about him, wearing those chains.”

And when he cut the movie soundtrack for “Shaft,” which starred Richard Roundtree and garnered Hayes his Oscar, it seemed as if he had crashed through the strange and Byzantine gates of Hollywood and its racial history. It seemed as if John Shaft was Cagney and Bogart all rolled out from behind a sepia-tinged curtain. The soundtrack had such a propulsive and aggressive beat that it seemed like something ripped from both the urban and rural parts of the Earth.

Michael Toles, a Memphis musician, first met Hayes in the 1960s and would later play concerts with him. He remembers the evolution of the chains. “The first few shows I did with him, he didn't wear the chains,” Toles says.

Many of the musicians who knew Hayes were aware of how the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on the balcony at the Lorraine Motel in 1968 affected him. Toles goes on: “But then he started wearing them and I think it represented to him the coming freedom of the black man.”

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