The bicyclist, David Spranger, 51, was in serious condition at Carolinas Medical Center.
The minivan struck the bicycle in its rear tire as Spranger rode in the right lane of Central Avenue shortly after 5 a.m., police said.
Spranger was thrown from the bicycle. The minivan stopped briefly, then drove away on North Sharon Amity, police Detective J.B. Reibold said.
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The minivan likely has minor front-end damage from hitting the bicycle and might have damage to the hood and passenger-side windshield, Reibold said.
Witnesses, video surveillance and vehicle debris identified the vehicle as a silver Ford Windstar minivan, Reibold said.
Anyone who witnessed the crash or has information about the vehicle is asked to call Crime Stoppers at 704-334-1600 or Charlotte-Mecklenburg police at 704-336-3229.